Exploring Internetworking in Linux (Layer2/Layer3 survey)

In this post, we are going to explore Linux commands, which helps us to look around the layer 2 functionality in the Linux networking stack.

Bridging

If you are using Open Switches and open network Linux OS (Like cumulus OS), or have a bridge on your Linux machine then you need check the MAC address table. Bridge (traditionally been dedicated hardware devices) can connect two or more network interfaces together. You can add two interfaces to a Linux bridge with ip link set and ip link add using:

keyvan@iproute:~$ sudo ip link add bridge1 type bridge
keyvan@iproute:~$ sudo ip link set eth1 master bridge1
keyvan@iproute:~$ sudo ip link set eth2 master bridge1

in this example ip link add command, is creating a bridge named bridge1 and ip link set commands add the two Ethernet interfaces, eth0 and eth1, to the new bridge as result we have a connection between these two interfaces.

lets see the content of the MAC address table using bridge command.

keyvan@iproute:~$ sudo bridge fdb show
33:33:00:00:00:01 dev eth0 self permanent
01:00:5e:00:00:01 dev eth0 self permanent
01:80:c2:00:00:0e dev eth0 self permanent
01:80:c2:00:00:03 dev eth0 self permanent
01:80:c2:00:00:00 dev eth0 self permanent
33:33:ff:8d:c0:4d dev eth0 self permanent
08:00:27:91:16:05 dev eth1 master bridge1 permanent
08:00:27:91:16:05 dev eth1 vlan 1 master bridge1 permanent
33:33:00:00:00:01 dev eth1 self permanent
01:00:5e:00:00:01 dev eth1 self permanent

fdb stands for forwarding database management.

Also you can use bridge-utils package, it contains a utility needed to create and manage bridge devices.

keyvan@iproute:~$ sudo brctl showmacs bridge1
sudo: unable to resolve host iproute
port no	mac addr		is local?	ageing timer
  2	08:00:27:57:51:c0	yes		   0.00
  2	08:00:27:57:51:c0	yes		   0.00
  1	08:00:27:91:16:05	yes		   0.00
  1	08:00:27:91:16:05	yes		   0.00

Spanning Tree

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 protocol that runs on bridges and switches. The specification for STP is IEEE 802.1D. The main purpose of STP is to ensure that you do not create loops when you have redundant paths in your network. Loops are deadly to a network. if you accidentally create loops, then you will ultimately bring the network down. we can mitigate these loops through the use of spanning trees. A spanning tree is always recommended for any bridge or device configured with a bridge interface to prevent bridging loops, reduce broadcast traffic, and provide automatic failover if you have redundant links. You can perform most spanning tree configurations in Linux by using the mstpd-ctl command, which controls the multiple spanning tree protocol daemon (MSTPD).

2021

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